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Directives for application ceramics

Ceramics, thanks to its wealth and properties diversity are present in a wide range of activities, replying thus to traditional industries requirements and also to the high-tech industries needs.

Ceramics find their application in mechanic for manufacturing mechanical pieces when the technical requirements asks very high performances

CeramicsMaterial
Wear resistanceAll but specially Si 4N 3, ZrO 2
High temperatureAL 2O 3--> 1700 °C
Flexural strengthAIN
Thermal stabilitySi 4N 3
HardnessSiC

Ceramics are used in electronic field because of their electrical and thermal properties.

CeramicsPropertiesMaterialsApplications
InsulatingHigh electrical and thermal Resistivity

Al 2O 3
BeO
MgO

Microelectronics

  • Substrates
  • remoting module
DielectricDielectric rigidity
Permittivity
Dielectric constant
BaTiO 3, SrTiO 3, CaTiO 3, Al 2O 3
Cordierite
Capacitors
Substrates
Electrodes
ThermistorElectrical Resistivity decrease in function of temperatureBaTiO 3Temperature sensors
VaristorElectrical Resistivity increase in function of temperatureSiC, ZnOSafety gap
Heating elementsHigh electrical conductivitySiC, MoSi 2, LaCr 2O 3Resistors
Chemical sensorHigh ionic conductivityAl 2O 3,, ZrO 2, TiOHumidity captor, of gas

Ceramics are used in aeronautic and spatial field for their thermo structural properties:

  • refractoriness : resistance to temperatures > 1000°C
  • resistance to particular atmosphere
  • resistance to mechanical reliability

The ceramic reinforcement thanks to fibres: the C.M.C. (Ceramic-Matrix Composite), allow using, for the manufacturing of various complex parts:

  • turbine elements
  • combustion chamber
  • thermal protection
  • thermal shield

Ceramics are used in metallurgy, refractory, for their properties of:

  • High temperature mechanical resistance
  • Thermal impacts resistance
  • Resistance to chemical shocks

There are essentially 3 big refractory ceramics families:

  • The acid refractories of the alumina-silica system
  • The basic refractories from magnesia-dolomite-chromite
  • The special or neutral refractories : carbon, carbide, nitride …

The refractories ceramics find their application in metallurgy for the manufacturing of cores, shell mould …

RefractoriesPropertiesMaterialsApplications
ACIDS   
SilicateLow creep Thermal impact resistance >800°CSiO 2 > 93%Crown, glassware fusion
ClayHigh thermal dilatation and conductivity20% < Al 2O 3 < 45%Kilns realization
AluminaHigh corrosion resistanceAl 2O 3 > 45%Blast-furnace
 High refractory Very good resistance to corrosionMgO
Cr 2O 3
Non-ferrous metal fusion Electric kilns
NEUTRAL
Exp: Carbon
Low dilatation coefficient Excellent chemical resistanceCarbonElectrolyse pot packing Cruci
MaterialsPropertiesShaping TechnologyApplications
Yttried ZirconiumIonic conduction ionic by ions O2
  • Tape casting
  • Uniaxial or isostatic pressing
  • Electrochemical separation of oxygen
  • Oxygen content
  • Electricity production (Solid electrolyte fuel cell said " SOFC ")
Composed with perovskite structure

Mixed-base conduction (ionic and electronic conduction by ions O2)

Proton conduction (by H+)

  • "dip-coating" deposit
  • Hydrocarbon partial oxidation
  • Oxidation and/or oxygen
  • reduction reaction catalyse
  • Hydrogen production

The technical ceramics are very important in environment field thanks to:

  • Controlled porous structure
  • Their high thermal properties.

Ceramics are used for realization of:

  • Gas detection sensor:
    • Materials : oxide with rare earth or transition elements
  • Catalyst - catalytic converter
    • Materials : cordierite, SiC
  • Filters for agro-foodstuffs and water purification
    • Tubular shaping porous materials, multichannel or plan
  • Particle filters for diesel engine
  • Waste treatment : waste vitrification
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